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You have to be able to:

Carry out the emergency procedures for urinating and defecating while in a chemical environment.

Urinating and defecating are to be undertaken only in areas set aside for the purpose and which are, if possible, free from liquid contamination. Women follow the procedure for defecating for all bodily functions.

Urinating Procedure (Males)

Release equipment and jacket velcro fasteners.

If liquid present, decontaminate gloves and jacket pocket.

Raise jacket hem above trouser waistband and secure in position by applying waistband velcro to pocket velcros.

Untie braces. Avoid pulling clear of loops.

Release trouser waistband velcro fasteners.

If liquid present, decontaminate gloves and remove outers and inners. Place in pocket.

Push pouch forward for access to inner trousers. Undo trousers and urinate. Adjust inner clothing.

If liquid present, decontaminate hands, put on gloves.

Fasten and adjust NBC IPE.

Defecation and Female Urination Procedure

Remove equipment, hang up or place on uncontaminated surface.

Release jacket waist velcro fasteners.

If liquid present, decontaminate gloves and jacket pocket.

Raise jacket hem above trouser waistband and secure in position by applying waistband velcro to pocket velcros.

Untie braces, pull clear of loops, tie ends together.

Release trouser waist velcro fasteners.

Pull down IPE trousers to knees.

If liquid present, decontaminate gloves, remove outers and inners. Store gloves in jacket pocket.

Take out toilet paper.

Adjust inner clothing so it will not touch outside of IPE.

Crouch, reach behind and pull braces to one side.

Defecate/Urinate - Wipe.

Stand up.

Adjust inner clothing, refasten braces through loops.

If liquid present, decontaminate hands, put on gloves.

Adjust IPE, secure velcro.

◉ Note:

(1) Toilet paper, ST/tampons must be kept readily available but protected from contamination, e.g., shirt pocket.

(2) Obtain variations for use in arctic conditions from your NBC NCO.


Practise the procedures for urinating and defecating in IPE.


You have to be able to:

a. Know when you must change your respirator canister.

b. Be able to change your canister.

Study Notes

The canister will filter chemical and biological agents and radioactive dust. On declaration of a NBC threat you will be issued with 2 sealed canisters, one for use and one spare stowed in your haversack. The protective seal is not to be removed until immediately before the canister is to be put on the respirator. There are 4 occasions when you must decide for yourself to change the canister:

a. If you feel the effects of chemical agent when wearing a properly fitted, functioning respirator.

b. If resistance to breathing becomes excessive.

c. If the canister is immersed in water (eg, on crossing a river).

d. If the canister is badly damaged or rattles when shaken.

There may be other occasions when you will be ordered to change your canister eg, after 3 weeks occasional exposure to chemical agents, 6 direct chemical attacks or 4 months wear.

Drill for Changing Canister

Remove spare canister from packaging, ensure plastic thread protection cap is still fitted. Place the canister on a clean surface where you can pick it up with your eyes shut.

Close your eyes, take a deep breath and hold it. Unscrew canister from facepiece and discard it.

Remove plastic thread protection cap and discard. Screw on new canister, blow out hard.

Breathe normally, decontaminate gloves, outside of facepiece and new canister. Report the change to your commander.

Render old canister useless.


a. Learn the 4 occasions when you alone are responsible for changing your canister.

b. Practise the canister changing drill, using 2 training canisters.


You have to be able to:


a. Your personal weapon.

b. Any unit weapon or equipment on which you work.

Study Notes

If your personal weapon becomes contaminated with chemical agent you will have to decontaminate it as soon as possible to avoid repeatedly recontaminating yourself. You must pay particular attention to those parts which you frequently handle, using DKP 1 and DKP 2 as described in Task 8. This will be effective against unthickened liquid agent which looks and behaves like motor oil. Thickened agent, which is more like strings of clear glue, will not be absorbed easily by Fuller's Earth powder. To remove thickened agent first use a scraper, then swab with a solvent (such as petrol diesel or kerosene) and finally use the DKP 1 or DKP 2 in the normal way. Fuller's Earth must be kept out of working parts.

If the unit weapon or equipment you serve becomes contaminated, this must also be decontaminated in a similar manner as soon as operations permit. Start with the parts most frequently touched and then using detector paper (and CAM if available), determine if there is liquid agent anywhere on the weapon. In particular check joints, cracks and around screw heads. Decontaminate as required. This will reduce both the contact and vapour challenges to your IPE. Remember that the scraper and the solvent will be contaminated after use.


You can use motor oil to safely simulate chemical agent. On exercises, sprinkle some spots on your weapon and practise decontaminating it as soon as you have completed the immediate action (IA) and decontamination (ID) drills. Note, the weapon must be thoroughly cleaned after this practise.


You have to be able to:

Change NBC clothing which has become contaminated.

Study Notes

Provided it remains undamaged, your IPE will remain effective against most NBC hazards for a period of 28 days. However, if you encounter liquid chemical contamination this time reduces to:

a. Suit; 24 hours or 6 hours in the case of mustard agent.

b. Boots; 24 hours.

c. Gloves; 3 hours or 24 hours if decontaminated within 15 minutes.

You will be vulnerable as you change, so wait until ordered to do so. If at all possible you should change under cover in a contamination free area. If this is not possible you will have to make your own liquid free area using a Chemical Agent Resistant Material (CARM) sheet or your discarded jacket. This is a worst case scenario. It is much easier with 2 people, helping each other in turn. Respirators must be kept in place throughout and heads held up to avoid any danger of contaminating inner clothing.

Undressing with Mk 4 NBC Suit Jacket

Remove equipment and hang up or place on uncontaminated surface.

Decontaminate gloves and respirator, particularly under the chin.

Undo all velcro fasteners on jacket, roll back outer 1 gloves.

Unzip jacket, fold back 1 hood.

Remove jacket, turning it inside out.

Place jacket on ground inside up, avoid standing on it.


Decontaminate gloves, undo all velcro fasteners on trousers.

Undo braces, place ends in pocket.

Roll trousers down below the knee.

Sit down on inside of jacket.

Ease trousers over heels and remove, turning them inside out.


Decontaminate gloves, slit Mk 4 laces / Mk 5 undo elastic, remove overboots.


Stand on jacket while HELPER decontaminates own gloves and then removes your outer gloves avoiding outside of outer gloves touching inner gloves. Remove your own inner gloves.

Dressing with Mk 4 NBC Suit


Remain standing on jacket while decontaminates own gloves and outer wrapping of inner gloves package.

HELPER opens package and offers inner gloves.

Put on inner gloves.

HELPER decontaminates own gloves and outer wrapping of outer gloves.

HELPER opens package and offers outer gloves.

Put on outer gloves.


HELPER decontaminates own gloves and outer package of trousers.

HELPER opens package and offers inner package.

Open package, punch out trousers. Put braces in pocket.

Put on trousers, secure waist velcro. Cross braces, pull through loops and tie in bow.


HELPER decontaminates own gloves and outer package of jacket.

HELPER opens package and offers inner package.

Open package and punch out jacket.

Put on jacket. Do up zip to 4 inches from top.

Pull on hood with both hands. Ensure elastic edge fits over ridge of S10.

Raise chin. With one hand, pull down jacket and with other zip to top. Do up velcro at neck, waist and wrists.

Pull outer gloves over cuffs.


HELPER decontaminates own gloves and outer package of overboots.

HELPER opens package and offers overboots.

Put on overboots sitting on inside of old jacket. Pull trousers over top and do up velcro.


Put on full IPE. Practise drill with a friend, one helping first and then the other. You may have to use a spare suit as the new one. Packed suits will seldom be available for training.


You have to be able to:

a. Know the general procedure for unmasking.

b. Be able to carry out the Sniff Test.

Study Notes

While it reduces efficiency to operate while wearing a respirator unnecessarily, unmasking too soon is as fatal as masking too late. The procedure will be controlled by your local commander and must be strictly followed:

Test for Liquid

Five minutes after a chemical attack your local commander will order a check of exposed surfaces with detector paper. If there are no signs of liquid agent, test for vapour.

Test for Vapour

Test for vapour using RVD and/or CAM. If there are no indications of vapour, report to your commander and he will order 2 personnel to carry out an initial Sniff Test, in view and upwind.

Initial Sniff Test

Two personnel carry out the initial Sniff Test as outlined below but remain masked.

If they report all clear the commander will order the two to unmask for 5 minutes and then remask.

When all detachments report no sign of vapour, the higher commander will order "All clear".

Individual Sniff Test

When the order "All Clear" is received all must then do a sniff test as outlined below. If at any time you suspect vapour, re-mask and shout "Gas, Gas, Gas".

Decontaminate gloves if they could be contaminated.

Stand back to wind, loosen hood, take a breath and hold it.

Insert 2 fingers of each hand between cheek and facepiece.

With eyes open, sniff gently over 10 seconds. Check any irritation of eyes, nose, throat or suspicious smells.

Remove fingers, blow out hard, observe others for symptoms.

If there are no symptoms, report to the commander, if he issues the order to 'Unmask' then:

(1) Remain alert for symptoms.

(2) Replace hood and helmet.

(3) Stow respirator and gloves.


a. Memorise the procedure.

b. Practise the Sniff Test.


You have to be able to:

a. Know the form biological agents take.

b. Know how biological agents contaminate the body.

c. Know the precautions that can be taken against biological agents.

Study Notes

1. Biological agents consist of bacteria, viral organisms or toxins that can cause disease in man, plants or animals and may cause the deterioration of material. Biological agents can be disseminated from missiles, bombs, rockets, devices fitted to aircraft, vehicles, ships or by man-portable equipment. They can be delivered in liquid droplet, aerosol, dry powder or insect form, or by introducing them into water or food supplies.

2. Biological agents can enter the body in the following ways:

a. Inhalation.

b. Ingestion.

c. Absorption through skin (abrasion/wounds).

d. Insect bites.

3. Precautions can be taken to mitigate the effects of biological agents and these consist of the following preventative measures:

a. Immunisation.

b. Strict personal hygiene and sanitation.

c. Take proper care of cuts and abrasions.

d. Care of IPE.

e. Consume only controlled food and water supplies.

f. Control of pests and rodents.

g. Minimum skin exposure.


Learn the form biological agents take, how they enter your body and the precautionary measures that can be taken to mitigate their effects.


You have to know:

What precautions taken before and after a nuclear explosion will minimise the effects.

Study Notes

The best cover will be specially prepared hardened shelters such as those found on some airfields. There are precautions which can be taken by those who do not have access to permanent shelters. Cellars and other underground facilities will assist in reducing the effects.


◉ Construct narrow trenches with straight sides, as deep as possible with at least 18 inches of overhead cover to protect against heat, blast and immediate radiation.

◉ Remain under cover whenever possible.

◉ Keep your weapon and equipment protected in your shelter trench.


◉ Carry out IA drill (Task 20). Any shielding will be better than none.

◉ Switch on and monitor radiac instruments.

◉ If there is a significant dust hazard, wear full IPE, brush off radioactive fallout as soon as you have the opportunity.

Post-attack Continued

◉ Stay under cover whenever possible.

◉ Keep any food and water covered.

◉ Keep any cuts and abrasions covered.

◉ When moving around outside try to avoid raising a dust or touching objects unnecessarily.


Learn what precautions you must take to improve your chances of survival both before and after a nuclear attack.

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